Sahiwal is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. This city was a small village on the Karachi-Lahore railway line in 1865 when it was named Montgomery after Sir Robert Montgomery, then Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab.It took its current name in 1966.It is the administrative centre of Sahiwal District and Sahiwal Division.The districts of Okara and Pakpattan are under Sahiwal division. Sahiwal lies approximately 180 km from the major city of Lahore. And it is the biggest city between Lahore and Multan. The population is 207,388 (1998 Pakistan Census). Sahiwal District is included in the former Multan Division. The city lies in the densely populated region between the Sutlej and Ravi rivers. Irrigation in the region is provided by the Bari Doab Canal system. The principal crops are wheat, cotton, tobacco, legumes, and oilseeds. Cotton goods and lacquered woodwork are manufactured. About 18 miles Southwest of Sahiwal is Harappa, an ancient city of the world, oldest urban center of Harappan or Indus civilization in South Asia. About 28 miles (45 km) west of Sahiwal, at Kamalia, is the site of a Malli city captured by Alexander the Great in 325 bc. Pop. (1998) city, 207,388. The people of Sahiwal are known as Sahiwalians.
The climate of Sahiwal district is extreme, reaching 52 °C in summer, and down to -5 °C in winter. The soil of the district is very fertile. The average rainfall is about 2000 mm.
Sahiwal's industries include cotton ginning and pressing, tanning, textile (City cloth palace,City Fassion Center) , textile spinning,weaving, leather products, garments, pharmaceuticals, flour mills, food processing, oil mills, cold storage, potato, tobacco, vegetable ghee/cooking oil, biscuits, chip board, confectionery, and woollen textile spinning and weaving. The Sahiwal breed of cattle, recognised as productive among Zebu dairy breeds, originated here; they are now found throughout the tropics. The main crops of the Sahiwal district are wheat, cotton, sugarcane, maize and rice. Main fruits are citrus, mangoes and guava. Sahiwal is a green and fertile town with 11,522 acres (46.63 km2) under naturally grown forests. KSC is an electrical industry in Sahiwal, producing water heaters, water coolers, air coolers, fans and washing machines.
Sahiwal houses several educational institutes of quality. Government College Sahiwal is one of capacious institute in the city. It has 100 acres of land which includes the college building, a separate library building, a recreational building having swimming pool inside two hostels named Jinnah Hall and Iqbal Hall and vast green playgrounds. There are several universities are being present in Sahiwal Univerity of Sahiwal (Government University), Comsats Arid and GC University Faisalabad Sub Campus Sahiwal and are reviving and fueling the educational structure of Sahiwal division. Government High School, Government High School Urban Area, Government Comprehensive High School, Government High School 186/9-L, Government Muslim Zimidara High School 145/9-L and Government Pilot Higher Secondary School are the leading high schools of the city. Junior Model High School, Divisional Public School (DPS) and St. Mary's Convent School are also providing education. Educator School, Government College for Women, Sahiwal. One of the oldest Institutes of Commerce is the Government College of Commerce, Sahiwal. St. Mary's Convent High School, is a well reputed English medium institution run by Italian nuns. Many among the elite of Sahiwal send their children to St. Mary's. The Virtual University of Pakistan has opened its regional as well as private campus in Sahiwal, and offers distant learning programmes. Regional Campus is situated at college chowk upper building of Bakers Inn. The private sector is playing a major role in primary education: renowned schools in this regard are The Educators, The Beaconhouse School System, Bloom Field, The City School and Pre-Forces Cadet School. A new building of The City School is under construction in front of Comprehensive School Sahiwal. After completion it will be the largest private school campus in Sahiwal. Another new school established in 2007 is the Dare-Aqram Model School. The Educators College has separate campuses for boys and girls. The Commission on Science and Technology and Sustainable Development, in the South, i.e., COMSATS has opened its sixth campus at Sahiwal. It is a Public Sector University, Chartered by Federal Government providing quality education in the field of Management Sciences and Computer Sciences at both undergraduate and post graduate level. COMSATS has an edge over its competitor institutions and it has foreign qualified and experienced faculty at its Sahiwal campus. There are two Government Colleges for Technical Education that offer three years DAE & B.Tech in various disciplines. There are many Private Technical Education Institutes that offer DAE & B.Tech. Allama Iqbal Polytechnic Institute is the first institute to offer DAE in Mechanical Technology (since 2003).
The District Hospital commonly referred to as the Civil Hospital is the largest hospital of Sahiwal. It has a nursing school and also offers different laboratory courses. Many well known doctors of the city have served their House Jobs here. However adequate medical facilities, especially emergency specialist equipment, are often not available and patients are referred to Lahore (the capital city of the Punjab), which is inconvenient and risky.